Could Joseph and Imhotep have been the same person?

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Posts Tagged ‘18th dynasty

If Joseph was Imhotep of the 3rd dynasty and Moses was Amenemhet IV of the 12th dynsasty, where do David and Solomon fit in?

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A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.

The Bible says that Joseph was a sage or vicroy for the Pharaoh and Imhotep fits the bill perfectly.   Moses was an Israelite baby who was adopted by the Pharaoh’s daughter and raised as her own.  Maybe he would have been a pharaoh if he did not have to go into exile in Midian for 40 yrs at the age of 40.  The Israelites had to make mud bricks and work the fields for pharaoh.  There were 2 million Israelites and they were slaves in Egypt for at least half of the time that they were there. Even if they only made one mudbrick per person per day, that’s a lot of mudbricks.  The 12th dynasty pyramids had a core that was made of mudbricks.  Amenemhet III was the last pharaoh of the 12th dynasty to build a pyramid.  In fact, he built two pyramids that had mudbrick cores and he also built the labyrinth.  He reigned for 46 yrs and had a daughter called Sobekneferu who had no children of her own.  Another figure called Amenemhet IV who had no genealogical records, co-reigned with Amenemhet III for 9 yrs and then suddenly disappeared.  Moses may well have been Amenemhet IV.  This would make sense and agree with Bible as Moses was raised by pharaoh and was being groomed to be the next pharaoh. This was around the time that Moses had to flead to Midian.  Sobekneferu took over after Amenemhet III died but only reigned 4-8 years and then she died and the 12th dynasty ended.  There was a rapid succession of pharaohs in the 13th dynasty and second intermediate period. Moses lead the Israelites out of Egypt 430 years after they first came to Egypt at the age of 80 during the reign of Neferhotep I. The Israelites were in the wilderness for 40 yrs. Then they were lead into to promised land by Joshua.  The period of the Judges lasted around 400 yrs.  Then Saul became the first king of Israel who was succeeded by David who was succeeded by Solomon.  The dates for Solomon building the temple are fairly established and accepted even by worldly archaeolgists as around 960BC.  The bible says that the exodus took place 480 years before this.
Saul and David were Kings of Israel.  It does not make sense to try and equate them with an Egyptian pharaoh.  It would be good to know which pharaoh in Egypt was ruling when David and Solomon were ruling in Israel.
From what I can see, it appears that Apopi II, the last pharaoh of the second intermediate period – a Hyksos was driven out of Egypt by a rebellion lead by Kahmose, the son of Sequenre and the brother of Ahmose I.  When Apopi II and the Hyksos left Egypt heading north, they encountered the Israelites who were lead by Saul at the time.  Samuel instructed Saul to put them all to death.  Saul all but wiped out the Hyksos as instructed  but disobeyed Samuel by sparing Agag (Apopi II).  Samuel put him to death himself.  Ahmose I became the first pharaoh of the New kingdom of Egypt while Saul continued to reign in Israel.  Saul in Israel was then succeeded by David and then Solomon and Ahmose I in Egypt was succeeded by Amenhotep I, then Thutmoses I followed by Thutmose II and then Hatshepsut (the Queen of Sheeba who visited Solomon).  Thutmoses III succeeded Hatshepsut and became the most powerful pharaoh of Egypt plundering Israel during the period of the divided kingdom of Israel. He was the Shishak of the Bible.  David was 1000BC and Saul about 1040BC.  If the Egyptian dates do not match it is because they are wrong.  The Egyptian dates need to be revised – I could go on and on as to why they are wrong but just accept this for now.

United_Israel_synchronisms

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Wyatt was right about Imhotep being Joseph and did find the site of the Red Sea crossing and the real Mt Sinai in Arabia but wrongly concluded that Moses was in the 18th dynasty.

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Wyatt believed Joseph was Imhotep but placed Moses in the 18th dynasty because the chariot wheels he found at the bottom of the Red Sea were thought to date from the 18th dynasty.

There is no evidence for a massive exodus of slaves in the 18th dynasty.  It would be very hard to explain how Joseph was third dynasty and Moses 18th dynasty particularly if there was a short sojourn.

There is a lot of evidence to suggest that the Israelites were enslaved during the 12th dynasty. Moses was born during the co-regency of Sesostris III and Amenemhet III in 1526BC. Moses fled from Amenemhet III at the age of 40 after showing his loyalty to the Hebrews. Moses remained in Exile in Midian for 40 yrs. When he was 80 years old, Moses returned to confront a different pharaoh (Neferhotep I of the 13th dynasty). He lead the Israelites out of Egypt in the 13th dynasty in 1446BC. Pilars were left by Solomon to mark the site of the Red Sea crossing which occurred 480 years before Solomon began building the temple.  With a revised chronology and a long sojourn, it is quite possible that Joseph may have existed in the third dynasty and Moses lived towards the end of the 12th and 13th dynasty.

Wyatt found these pillars in 1978 and went on to find chariot wheels in the Red Sea at this point. Unfortunately, experts insisted that the chariot wheels could not have been from the 12th dynasty and sent Wyatt on a wild goose chase looking for evidence of the Israelites in the 18th dynasty. There is, however, no evidence for the Israelite slaves and a mass exodus in the 18th dynasty.

The Hyksos exodus at the end of the second intermediate period was not the Israelite Exodus either. The Hyksos were rulers of Egypt. The Hyksos were foreigners to Egypt who were able invade and rule over Lower Egypt after Egypt had been devastated by the Israelite Exodus in the 13th dynasty when Neferhotep was the Pharaoh. The Hyksos ruled Egypt for some 400yrs (Egypt’s second intermediate period). Eventually, the family of Ahmoses based in Thebes (Upper Egypt in the 17th dynasty) contemporary with the Hyksos 15-16th dynasties in Lower Egypt, lead a rebellion against the Hyksos and successfully chased the Hyksos out of Egypt. The Hyksos (Amelekites) headed towards Israel where they had encounters with King Saul and David. The prophet Samuel instructed Saul to wipe them out but Saul spared their king Agag (Apopi II) and brought him to Samuel. Samuel put Agag to death. David had a few encounters with the Hyksos (Amalekites) too. The Amelekites plundered David’s camp and abducted his wives and children. David managed to catch up with them and wipe them out and get his family back. Ironically, it was an Amelakite who slew King Saul after he had been fatally wounded.

In summary, Wyatt seems to have been right about Imhotep being Joseph and did discover the route of the Exodus, the site of the Red Sea crossing and the true or biblical Mt Sinai in Arabia. Unfortunately, the Chariot wheels that he found at the bottom of the Red Sea were erroneously dated to the 18th dynasty which lead him on a wild goose chase looking for Moses in the 18th dynasty. He, nevertheless, made some critical discoveries which have helped to reconstruct history and reconcile it with the Bible.

The relationship between the Kingdoms of Egypt and the Phases of Israel

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The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

The relationship between the Israelite sojourn (430yrs) and the dynasties of Egypt.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon.  There was no first intermediate period.

A schematic diagram illustrating the relationship between the Egyptian Kingdoms and dynasties and the various phases of Israel as the Israelites grew to be a nation while they were in Egypt and then traveled to the promised land where they were ruled initially by Judges and later by Kings. The nation of Israel became divided into North (Israel) and South (Judah) after Solomon. There was no first intermediate period.

Imhotep’s Pharaoh (Netjerikhet) was not know as Djoser until many years after he died.

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The name ‘Djoser’ was not used during the third dynasty.   This name was used in later dynasties to refer to Netjerikhet.

The Famine Stele.  Inscription number 81.  Carved on a high point on the Island of Sehel during the Ptoleemaic period.  It mentions Djoser, Imhotep and a seven year famine.  It also makes reference to Djoser giving land to the priests of Khnum.  (The priests of Isis also make the same claim elsewhere).

The Famine Stele. (Inscription number 81). Carved on a high point on the Island of Sehel during the Ptolemaic period. It mentions Djoser, Imhotep and a seven year famine. It also makes reference to Djoser giving land to the priests of Khnum. (The priests of Isis also make the same claim elsewhere).

The pharaohs used their Horus names. In this case, Netjerikhet was the Horus name for Imhotep’s Pharaoh.  Netjerikhet is the name inscribed on all his monuments, including the inscriptions at the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.  New Kingdom (18th dynasty) graffiti at the Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara indicates that Netjerikhet was also known as Djoser.  The first definite proof that Netjerikhet was Djoser comes from the famine stele found on the Island of Sehel. It mentions both names of the Pharaoh (Djoser and Netjerikhet) as well as Imhotep and a seven year famine.  The inscription was written during the Ptolemaic dynasties and appears to be cut by priests of the god ‘Khnum’ of Elephantine and lays claim to some land south of Aswan known as ‘Dodekaschoinoi’ and claims that it had been granted to them by ‘Djoser’.   Another group of priests of the goddess ‘Isis’ on the Isle of Philae also believed that Djoser had given the land to them.  Both groups believed that Djoser’s promise had some lasting validity.

Imhotep was Djoser’s vizier and the Famine Stele records that Djoser asks Imhotep to help save Egypt from a coming seven year famine.

The priests of Isis and Khnum recognise Djoser as having the right to grant land.

Land rights date back to Djoser because Djoser’s vizier acquired all the land of Egypt for Djoser.  Djoser gave the priests an allowance of grain and so they did not have to sell their land to him.
While the priests of Khnum and Isis may never have sold their land to Djoser, it was still a gift to them from Djoser as the priests of these Egyptian gods would have starved if Djoser had not given them grain. Everybody else had to buy grain from Djoser and when they had run out of money, they had to sell their land. Djoser made the priests exempt by giving them a grain allowance and so he enabled them to keep their land. Imhotep (Joseph) thus saved all of Egypt from starvation and empowered Pharaoh Djoser and indirectly, the priests of the Egyptian Gods. The priests would have been grateful and loyal to the Pharaoh.

The common people could only have sold their land to the pharaoh once.

The Bible records that when Joseph was the vizier, he helped to save Egypt from a seven year famine.  Joseph was able to buy up all the land of Egypt (except that of the Priests). Joseph was therefore responsible for making the Pharaoh’s rich and this explains how the Pharaohs acquired the power and resources to build the Pyramids.

Joseph married the daughter of the  High Priest of On (capital of Heliopolos).  He lived till the age of 110 years and would have served several Pharaohs.  He was embalmed when her died.

Because of the similarities between Joseph and Imhotep, it is likely that they were the same person.  Netjerikhet would have been the Pharaoh of Joseph and more than likely, he became known as the ‘Pharaoh of Joseph’ by subsequent pharaohs (of the 18th dynasty).   It is likely that the Name ‘Djoser’ means ‘the Pharaoh of Joseph’ as it was not ‘coined’ until well after Netjerikhet died and Joseph / Imhotep became quite a notable figure in his own right.  Imhotep / Joseph was probably responsible for designing more than one pyramid, developing embalming techniques, building with columns, using the papyrus to write many literary works.  He even performed many operations.  Little wonder that the Greeks and the Egyptians subsequently tried to deify him.  Netjerikhet became known as the ‘Pharaoh of Joseph’ and this was possibly abreviated as ‘Djoser’.

In contrast, Moses, who lived in the 12th dynasty, also had a lasting influence on Egypt and several pharaohs of the 18th dynasty were named after Moses (eg Ahmoses and Thutmoses) even though they had nothing to do with him.

The name Zoser is Greek for Djoser.