Could Joseph and Imhotep have been the same person?

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Wyatt was right about Imhotep being Joseph and did find the site of the Red Sea crossing and the real Mt Sinai in Arabia but wrongly concluded that Moses was in the 18th dynasty.

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Wyatt believed Joseph was Imhotep but placed Moses in the 18th dynasty because the chariot wheels he found at the bottom of the Red Sea were thought to date from the 18th dynasty.

There is no evidence for a massive exodus of slaves in the 18th dynasty.  It would be very hard to explain how Joseph was third dynasty and Moses 18th dynasty particularly if there was a short sojourn.

There is a lot of evidence to suggest that the Israelites were enslaved during the 12th dynasty. Moses was born during the co-regency of Sesostris III and Amenemhet III in 1526BC. Moses fled from Amenemhet III at the age of 40 after showing his loyalty to the Hebrews. Moses remained in Exile in Midian for 40 yrs. When he was 80 years old, Moses returned to confront a different pharaoh (Neferhotep I of the 13th dynasty). He lead the Israelites out of Egypt in the 13th dynasty in 1446BC. Pilars were left by Solomon to mark the site of the Red Sea crossing which occurred 480 years before Solomon began building the temple.  With a revised chronology and a long sojourn, it is quite possible that Joseph may have existed in the third dynasty and Moses lived towards the end of the 12th and 13th dynasty.

Wyatt found these pillars in 1978 and went on to find chariot wheels in the Red Sea at this point. Unfortunately, experts insisted that the chariot wheels could not have been from the 12th dynasty and sent Wyatt on a wild goose chase looking for evidence of the Israelites in the 18th dynasty. There is, however, no evidence for the Israelite slaves and a mass exodus in the 18th dynasty.

The Hyksos exodus at the end of the second intermediate period was not the Israelite Exodus either. The Hyksos were rulers of Egypt. The Hyksos were foreigners to Egypt who were able invade and rule over Lower Egypt after Egypt had been devastated by the Israelite Exodus in the 13th dynasty when Neferhotep was the Pharaoh. The Hyksos ruled Egypt for some 400yrs (Egypt’s second intermediate period). Eventually, the family of Ahmoses based in Thebes (Upper Egypt in the 17th dynasty) contemporary with the Hyksos 15-16th dynasties in Lower Egypt, lead a rebellion against the Hyksos and successfully chased the Hyksos out of Egypt. The Hyksos (Amelekites) headed towards Israel where they had encounters with King Saul and David. The prophet Samuel instructed Saul to wipe them out but Saul spared their king Agag (Apopi II) and brought him to Samuel. Samuel put Agag to death. David had a few encounters with the Hyksos (Amalekites) too. The Amelekites plundered David’s camp and abducted his wives and children. David managed to catch up with them and wipe them out and get his family back. Ironically, it was an Amelakite who slew King Saul after he had been fatally wounded.

In summary, Wyatt seems to have been right about Imhotep being Joseph and did discover the route of the Exodus, the site of the Red Sea crossing and the true or biblical Mt Sinai in Arabia. Unfortunately, the Chariot wheels that he found at the bottom of the Red Sea were erroneously dated to the 18th dynasty which lead him on a wild goose chase looking for Moses in the 18th dynasty. He, nevertheless, made some critical discoveries which have helped to reconstruct history and reconcile it with the Bible.

Imhotep’s Pharaoh (Netjerikhet) was not know as Djoser until many years after he died.

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The name ‘Djoser’ was not used during the third dynasty.   This name was used in later dynasties to refer to Netjerikhet.

The Famine Stele.  Inscription number 81.  Carved on a high point on the Island of Sehel during the Ptoleemaic period.  It mentions Djoser, Imhotep and a seven year famine.  It also makes reference to Djoser giving land to the priests of Khnum.  (The priests of Isis also make the same claim elsewhere).

The Famine Stele. (Inscription number 81). Carved on a high point on the Island of Sehel during the Ptolemaic period. It mentions Djoser, Imhotep and a seven year famine. It also makes reference to Djoser giving land to the priests of Khnum. (The priests of Isis also make the same claim elsewhere).

The pharaohs used their Horus names. In this case, Netjerikhet was the Horus name for Imhotep’s Pharaoh.  Netjerikhet is the name inscribed on all his monuments, including the inscriptions at the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.  New Kingdom (18th dynasty) graffiti at the Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara indicates that Netjerikhet was also known as Djoser.  The first definite proof that Netjerikhet was Djoser comes from the famine stele found on the Island of Sehel. It mentions both names of the Pharaoh (Djoser and Netjerikhet) as well as Imhotep and a seven year famine.  The inscription was written during the Ptolemaic dynasties and appears to be cut by priests of the god ‘Khnum’ of Elephantine and lays claim to some land south of Aswan known as ‘Dodekaschoinoi’ and claims that it had been granted to them by ‘Djoser’.   Another group of priests of the goddess ‘Isis’ on the Isle of Philae also believed that Djoser had given the land to them.  Both groups believed that Djoser’s promise had some lasting validity.

Imhotep was Djoser’s vizier and the Famine Stele records that Djoser asks Imhotep to help save Egypt from a coming seven year famine.

The priests of Isis and Khnum recognise Djoser as having the right to grant land.

Land rights date back to Djoser because Djoser’s vizier acquired all the land of Egypt for Djoser.  Djoser gave the priests an allowance of grain and so they did not have to sell their land to him.
While the priests of Khnum and Isis may never have sold their land to Djoser, it was still a gift to them from Djoser as the priests of these Egyptian gods would have starved if Djoser had not given them grain. Everybody else had to buy grain from Djoser and when they had run out of money, they had to sell their land. Djoser made the priests exempt by giving them a grain allowance and so he enabled them to keep their land. Imhotep (Joseph) thus saved all of Egypt from starvation and empowered Pharaoh Djoser and indirectly, the priests of the Egyptian Gods. The priests would have been grateful and loyal to the Pharaoh.

The common people could only have sold their land to the pharaoh once.

The Bible records that when Joseph was the vizier, he helped to save Egypt from a seven year famine.  Joseph was able to buy up all the land of Egypt (except that of the Priests). Joseph was therefore responsible for making the Pharaoh’s rich and this explains how the Pharaohs acquired the power and resources to build the Pyramids.

Joseph married the daughter of the  High Priest of On (capital of Heliopolos).  He lived till the age of 110 years and would have served several Pharaohs.  He was embalmed when her died.

Because of the similarities between Joseph and Imhotep, it is likely that they were the same person.  Netjerikhet would have been the Pharaoh of Joseph and more than likely, he became known as the ‘Pharaoh of Joseph’ by subsequent pharaohs (of the 18th dynasty).   It is likely that the Name ‘Djoser’ means ‘the Pharaoh of Joseph’ as it was not ‘coined’ until well after Netjerikhet died and Joseph / Imhotep became quite a notable figure in his own right.  Imhotep / Joseph was probably responsible for designing more than one pyramid, developing embalming techniques, building with columns, using the papyrus to write many literary works.  He even performed many operations.  Little wonder that the Greeks and the Egyptians subsequently tried to deify him.  Netjerikhet became known as the ‘Pharaoh of Joseph’ and this was possibly abreviated as ‘Djoser’.

In contrast, Moses, who lived in the 12th dynasty, also had a lasting influence on Egypt and several pharaohs of the 18th dynasty were named after Moses (eg Ahmoses and Thutmoses) even though they had nothing to do with him.

The name Zoser is Greek for Djoser.